• Scraper

    engraver’s tool, a steel shaft with cutting edges. Used for intaglio engraving to incise the light tone areas and to remove burr as well.

  • Soft ground etching

    etching technique, uses very soft greasy ground; the ordinary ground is mixed with tallow, thus the ground is soft and could be easily removed from the plate. The plate is covered with grained paper; when image is applied, the ground attaches itself to paper under the pressure of the pencil and can be easily removed with it, leaving the open part with the image;  then comes the biting. The finished etching has the effect of a pencil drawing.

  • Stipple engraving

    (from German puntktieren, from Latin  punctum – point) - variety of intaglio engraving on metal, in most cases copper; also called “hammerwork” (the punch-and-hammer method). The image is made with special tools, creating points of different size either on the metal plate directly, or on the acid resistant ground (as preparation for biting). This technique produces prints with very subtle tonal variations. Known since the end of the 15th century, stipple engraving became very popular reproduction technique in the 18th century.

  • Stippling burin

    tool for metal engraving. Has a form of a burin with sharp crook edge, leaving short triangular strokes or stipples  on a metal surface.  Used in stipple engraving techique. Very popular in England in the 18th century.

  • Sugar aquatint

    (French reservage)– variety of engraving (aquatint). The image is drawn directly on the plate with special ink diluted in sugar or gum arabic. The plate is grounded over with acid resistant substance and then immersed in water. The ink swells in water and heaves up, detaching the ground with the drawn lines.