• Crayon manner

    variant of stipple engraving (intaglio engraving), imitation of pencil, charcoal,  sanguine (red chalk) or pastel drawing. The engraver makes small strokes and spots on the grounded plate, then bite it. The crayon manner was very popular in France in the 18th century as translation (facsimile, reproduction) technique.

  • Dry point

    (French pointe-seche, German Kaltnadel) is one of the intaglio techniques. Dry point is made by scratching lines into metal (copper) plates with steel or diamond-point needles, so that the angle of the needle effects the width of the line. This technique is particular for ist soft, velvety lines in prints, because the ink is held by the metal burr raised by the point. Dry point is frequently used together with etching technique. Known from the 15th century, very popular in the 19th century.

  • Endpiece

    a small illustration or ornamental adornment at the end of chapter, part, journal text or book.

  • Engraving(German Gravierung, French gravure)  1) process of incising an image or design into a hard surface metal, stone, wood, glass, linoleum with a burin and other instruments. Images on metal and glass plates can also be created by chemical action of an acid, i.e. etching. Engraved surface (plate or matrix) can be used to reproduce the incised design in a different material, f.e. print on paper.  2) image, transferred to  paper by way of printing from original matrix (plate) turned face down under pressure.
  • Etching

    (French eau-forte, Italian acquaforte -  strong water, i.e.  nitric acid) - engraving, where processing with different mechanical tools is substituted by chemical treatment with acid.

  • Frontispiece

    (French frontispiece) the title page with illustration or portrait placed on the left side of the book or manuscript opening, facing a title page with book and author names on the right.

  • Futurism

    (Italian futurismo, Russian from Latin futurum - future), artistic movement in 1910-1920, centered in Italy, and later in Russia, idolized the idea of the future, power of the machine,  emphasized dynamism, energy, the change (including war and revolution), and destruction of the past and present order.

  • Graver or Burin

    (German Stichel) engraving instrument, a thin steel rod, cut diagonally and  sharpened. The other end of the rod  is fixed in a handle with a wide rounded end. The  graver for metal engraving is lozenge-shaped in cross section, for woodcut burins with different sections are used.

  • Half title

    (from German Schmutz mud and Titel title) is a two-page sheet, inserted before the title, bears the name of the book, epigraph or dedication, and sometimes also publishers name. The half title in front of the new chapter can bear the name of the chapter, adornment or illustration. In ancient books half title was used to protect the title page, therefore his name in German.

  • Headpiece

    graphic picture or ornament adornment at the beginning of the book, chapter, part or article.