• Intaglio engraving

    engraving where the printing parts of the image on a matrix are lower than the blank parts, i.e. the image is mechanically (carved) or chemically (etched) incised  into the metal plate, then the incised parts are filled with ink, and turned face down, transferred to the paper or other similar media. Intaglio engraving includes line or burin engraving, dry point, etching and its derivatives.

  • Intaglio printing technique

    the lines to be printed are lower, i.e. incised into the surface of the plate. These incised lines retain the ink, which is then, under the pressure of the press, soaked up by the paper. The printing design is made either mechanically, i.e. by force of hand (dry point, line or burin engraving, mezzotint) or through the chemical action (etching and its derivatives). See also: intaglio engraving.

  • Linocut

    (from linoleum and cut) – variation of engraving, made on linoleum or other polymer plate, and then printed on paper. Invented in the beginning of the 20th century, close to xylography in its technique.

  • Lithography

    (from Greek lithos – stone and grapho – draw, write) – planographic printing process, usually considered as an engraving technique, (although the methods of engraving are not applied in this case). The image is made with greasy crayons or tousche (applied with brush) on a slightly acid processed limestone plate and  then printed. The technique was invented in 1798 by Alois Senefelder.

  • Mattoir

    metal engraving tool primarily for stipple manner. Made in  a form of a metal pounder, its  round working surface has spears, which produce small dots and stipples on the matrix surface.

  • Mezzotint

    (Italian mezzo – medium, tinto – inked, i.e. half-tone) – also called black manner. Intaglio engraving on metal plate; polished metal plate is roughened either mechanically (with fine burrs) or chemically, thus producing a rich velvety black at printing. The design is made by needle or crayon, the plate is then worked back with scrapers and burnishers to extract the white areas, thus creating lighter values and half-tones. This technique was invented by the German Ludwig von Siegen in the middle of the 17th century.

  • Planographic printing

    printing technique where image and blank fields lay on the same surface level. It works on a chemical principle due to a special treatment. The ink is attracted by the greasy substance marking the image area and repelled by moisture holding  blank areas.

  • Print

    in Russian the French word estampe  is offen used – work of graphic  art  made in lithography or engraving technique. Estampe is usually original print, bearing the artist’s signature and made by him entirely (in some cases – by the engraver or lithograph craftsman).

  • Print making techniques

    operation to get the print using different printing plates.  Depending on relation of printing and blank fields of the image three methods are distinguished: relief, intaglio and planographic printing.

  • Punch, piercer

    (French poin?on, from Latin punctio – to pierce) – metal engraving tool, has a form of a nail, used to make dots and stipples on the plate surface. Applied mostly in stipple manner.