• Sugar aquatint

    (French reservage)– variety of engraving (aquatint). The image is drawn directly on the plate with special ink diluted in sugar or gum arabic. The plate is grounded over with acid resistant substance and then immersed in water. The ink swells in water and heaves up, detaching the ground with the drawn lines.

  • Tonal engraving

    see Wood engraving

  • Wood engraving (tonal engraving)

    xylography made on block cut cross grain. Evolved by the English artist and engraver  Thomas Bewick. Compared to woodcut, allows more pictorial effects, tonal variations, therefore called tonal engraving.

  • Woodcut

    variety of xylography, using the woods of less hardness and incised parallel to the vertical axis of the wood’s grain. All lines and spots are carved on both sides with gouge or other instrument.

  • Xylography

    (from Greek xylo –wood and grapho – draw) – variety of engraving,  made on  wooden plates. The blank  areas are cut away,  lines of the  images are reserved,  inked and printed on paper or similar materials. Xylography  is  known in Western Europe since 14th century, color xylography with different plates is in use  from 16th century.