• Aquatint

    from Italian acquatinta, made of acquaforte – etching and tinto – tinted, tonal) – etching printmaking technique; acid is applied to metal plate covered with granulated resin or asphalt; due to the gradation of acid exposure the tonal variation effect is produced.

  • Autolithograph or Original print

    lithograph made by the artist himself on all stages, from creating the design to executing  the print.

  • Avant-garde

    (French avant-garde – advance guard) – general name for new art movements and schools in Europe from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century (in Russia 1890- 1930). Avant-garde means pursuit of innovation, rejection of classic and traditional aesthetic experience, emphasis on experiment in art. Being ahead of mainstream,  avant-garde implements new unconventional approaches in creative activity. The most important representatives of the Russian avant-garde were Kasimir Malevich, David Burlyuk, Olga Rosanova, Alexey Kruchenykh, Lubov Popova, Alexandra Ekster, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov.

  • Bite

    chemical processing of the printing plate (matrix). In the intaglio engraving technique and lithography bite is the way of processing the metal plate and limestone to get the desired image in the print.

  • Burin or Line engraving

    (German Stich, French gravure au burin) – the most ancient variety of the intaglio engraving on metal plate (zinc, copper), where the mechanical processing with different cutting tools is applied to create a printing plate. The incised elements are cut with the sharp burin – basic instrument of engraving. Emerged in the end of the 15th century as a derivation of toreutics.

  • Burnisher

    steel tool, used in mezzotint to work the plate back  toward  halftones and lighter values.

  • Burr

    (in Russian αΰπαϋ from Latin barba – beard) – rough ridges of the furrow, produced on metal plate through scratching (in dry point technique). Burr makes the line fuzzy thus creating a special artistic effect. The number of prints in this technique does not exceed 20-25, since the furrows are not deep and burr gets squashed soon enough.

  • Chiaroscuro (chiaroscuro woodblocks )

    woodblocks prints made in two or more colors, where  different blocks are used in succession for each color. First applied in Italy in the 16th century.

  • Chisel

    special engraving tools, metal blade with a sharpened edge; used in burin line engraving on metal and wood engraving.

  • Chromolithography or Color lithography

    printing technique of colored reproduction, requires several different runs with color inked plates (stone or zinc). Color lithography is almost entirely substituted by the photomechanical technique of creating an image in planographic printing.